Long Term Ecohydrological Research Poland
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Website adress -
Institute being in charge of research: Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas 6 Kossutha str 40-844 Katowice http://www.ietu.katowice.pl/
Year of establishment 1991
Contact person: Tomasz Staszewski (e-mail: stasz@ietu.katowice.pl)


Site characteristics in brief


site description: The Brenna monitoring site was established in 1991 and consists of a monitoring station at the elevation of 665 m a.s.l. where the measuring equipment is located, i.e. monitors for continuous measurements of ozone (Environics), Wind Speed Meter (Young) pyranometer (LiCo), a permanent plot in the 120-year-old Norway spruce stand at the elevation of 750 m a.s.l. and three catchments of a different areas: 7.4, 50, and 480 ha (limnigraphs)
ecosystem type under investigation:
  • forest
  • grassland
  • mountains
  • freshwater streams or/and lakes
  • hierarchical level of plots/objects monitored:
  • watershed
  • community
  • species
  • objects investigated by the study
    • water quality, floral characteristics, dry and wet deposition, ozone concentration, health status of trees, soil characteristics
    location - geographic co-ordinates: latitude: 49° 40'' N
    longitude: 18° 56'' E
    location - altitude: 750 (above sea level)


    • The Institute of Dendrology Polish Academy of Sciences, Kórnik Silesian University Agricultural University of Cracow The Institute of Forest Research Cracow


    Summary of research activities


    hypothesis / problem Response of spruce stands to air pollution and forest management practice in the mountain area which has been influenced by emissions from the industrial complexes of Silesia and the Czech Republic
    aims of studies Response of tree stand to air pollution. The balance of nutrients in a small mountain catchment. Changes in floral characteristics under forest stand reconstruction. Effect of forest management (falling, skidding) on soil (erosion).
    selection of publications resulting from the project
    • Vogt R.D., Godzik S., Kotowski M, Niklińska M., Pawłowski L., Seip H.M., Sienkiewicz J., Skotte G, Staszewski T., Szarek G., Tyszka J., Aagard P., 1994. Soil, soil water and stream water chemistry at some Polish sites with varying acid deposition. J. Ecol. Chem. v.3, No 3. 325 - 356.
    • Staszewski T., Godzik S., Szdzuj J., 1995. Fate of nitrogen in spruce and pine ecosystems. In: Acid Rain Research: Do we have enough answers? Eds. G.J. Heij and J.W. Erisman. Elsevier Science BV. 417 - 418.
    • Godzik S., Staszewski T., Szdzuj J., 1995. Deposition of air pollutants to forest ecosystems along pollution and climatic gradients in Poland. In: Acid Rain Research: Do we have enough answers? Eds. G.J. Heij and J.W. Erisman. Elsevier Science BV. 425- 426.
    • Staszewski T., Godzik S., Szdzuj J., 1996: Monitoring spruce stands in Brenna and Salmopol Pass in the Polish part of the Beskids. The Beskids Bulletin, Brno. 8: 13 - 18.
    • Godzik S.,Kubiesa P., Staszewski T., Szdzuj J., 1997. Air pollution and its possible effect on vegetation in Brenna - the Beskidy Mountains. The Beskids Bulletin, Brno. 9: 21 - 26.
    • Staszewski T., Łukasik W.M., Godzik S., Szdzuj J., Uziębło A.K., 1998. Climatic and pollution gradient studies on coniferous trees health status, needles wetability and chemical characteristics. Chemosphere vol. 36, No. 4 - 5, 901 - 905
    • Bytnerowicz A., Godzik S., Poth M., Anderson I., Szdzuj J., Tobias C., Macko S., Kubiesa P., Staszewski T., Fenn M., 1999. Chemical composition of air, soil and vegetation in forests of the Silesian Beskid Mountains, Poland. Water, Soil and Air Pollution 116: 141 - 150.
    • Staszewski T., Godzik S., Kubiesa P., Szdzuj J., 1999. Fate of nitrogen compounds deposited to spruce (Picea abies Karst.) and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests located in different air pollution and climatic conditions. Water, Soil and Air Pollution 116: 121 - 127.
    • Staszewski T., Uziębło A., Kubiesa P., Łukasik W., Szdzuj J,. (2004). Response of coniferous ecosystems to reduction of SO2 and NOX emission in last decade in Poland. Ecologia, Bratysława, vol. 22, 1.
    • Rudawska M., Leski T., Kieliszewska-Rokicka B., Staszewski T., (2004). Effect of long-term contrasting anthropogenic emission on ectomycorrhizal diversity of Scots pine stands in Poland. Ecologia, Bratysława, vol 23: 284-290.
    • Kieliszewska-Rokicka B., Rudawska M., Staszewski T., Kurczyńska E., Karliński L. (2004). Ectomycorrhizal associations in Norway spruce stands influenced by long lasting air pollution (Silesian Beskid Mountains, Poland). Ecologia, Bratysława, vol. 23: 142-149.
    • Niemtur S., Małek S., Pierzgalski E., Staszewski T., Wójcik J., (2005). Nutrient cycling in artificial mountain spruce stands as a background for conversion and sites degradation in the Silesian Beskid. [w:] Protection of soil and water resources in forestry areas (ed. by Pierzgalaski E., Niemtur S., Czerepko J.,) Warsaw, IBL (FRI) 93-102
    • Małek S., Niemtur S., Staszewski T. (2006). Seasonal changeability of water features from watersheds with artificial Norway spruce stands in the Silesian Beskid. Eckologia (Bratislava) Vol. 25, No. 3, p. 289-297.
    • Staszewski T., Uziębło A., W. Łukasik W., Kubiesa P., Szdzuj J. (2007). Changes in plant community structure and health status of spruce on permanent plots of the southern Poland in the last decade.[w:] KRIŽOVÁ, E., UJHÁZY, K. (eds.) 2007: Dynamika, stabilita a diverzita lesných ekosystémov. TU vo Zvolene, Zvolen, p. 95?103; ISBN 978-80-228-1821-6
    • Staszewski, T., Kubiesa, P. (2008): Fate of air pollutants in spruce and beech stands on permanent plots in Brenna ? the Silesian Beskid. Beskydy (Brno), 1. p. 77 ? 84.
    • Kubiesa P., Łukasik W. (2008). Erosion processes caused by the use of heavy equipment in mountain forests. The Silesia Beskid mountain case study. Beskydy, 1 (1): 51-58
    • Uziębło A.K., Barć A., Kubiesa P., Staszewski T. (2012). Zmiany struktury fitocenozy leśnej pod wpływem wycięcia zamierającego drzewostanu świerkowego i ocena zabiegów gospodarczych w lasach Beskidu Śląskiego (Karpaty Zachodnie). Roczniki Bieszczadzkie 20, 44 - 65.


    Existing data (accessibility: limited access)


    the time span data sets
    1991 - 2012temperature, precipitation, wet and dry deposition of air pollutants, soil characteristics, health status of trees, biodiversity

    Existence and availability of socio-economic data


    administrative level time span kind of data
    Borough Office1990 - 2012demographics, transportation, production, education, employment structure data


    Link to other long-term monitoring networks


    ICP Forest 147G


    Expermiental component




    National and International Projects conducted on / related to the site


    • Projects supported by EU: 5 FP CARBOMONT Effects of ..land-use..changes on..sources, sinks..and fluxes of..carbon in..Europea n ..mountain ..areas. EVK2-CT2001-00125.(2001 ? 2004) LIFE+ - ENVEUROPE - Environmental quality and pressures assessment across Europe: the LTER network as an integrated and shared system for ecosystem monitoring. LIFE08 ENV/IT/000399 (2009 ? 2013)
    • Grants of Ministry of Science Diversity of mycorrhizal fungi and ectomycorrhizas in the mature spruce stands under different levels of anthropopression. 6 P04H 00 320. (2002 - 2003). Elements cycling in anthropogenic Carpathian spruce stands in terms of their reconstruction and habitats degradation. 3 P06L 032 22. (2002 - 2005). Changes and threats of the selected elements of forest ecosystems during tree stand reconstruction in the Silesian Beskid - the Wolf Stream catchment case study. N N309 193037 (2009 ? 2012).
    • Projects ordered by Polish Ministry of Environment The analysis and assessment of effects of the implementation of the Polish Ecological Act relating to reduction in emission of SO2 and NOx in relation to biodiversity formation in forest ecosystems. (302/DN/2001). Assessment of effects of the implementation of the Polish Ecological Act relating to reduction of heavy metals emission on the basis of their accumulation in forest ecosystems with particular focus on the protected areas ? national parks. (307/DN/02). Environmental effect of reduction of air pollutants emission in the period 1994 ? 2004 on protected areas (305/DN/04).
    • Statutory projects Response of the spruce forests ecosystems to deposition of air pollutants. (137/DN/01). Changes in the biodiversity of forest ecosystems as an effect of implementation of the Polish Ecological Act regulations ? reduction of industrial emissions. (108/DNE3/2006).


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    (c) LTER 2009, design and engine: neurino